Dialectics of Body-Brain,Mind-Consciousness

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We want to remain fit all the time, as it is necessary to work and enjoy properly.While fitness is related more to human body and for working and enjoying,even through body parts,the concept of brain and mind enters.If someone is not competent in his work,he is considered as -‘he(she) has no brains’.And if someone’s sense of enjoyment is too poor,he or she is defined as having ‘no ear for music’ or ‘ no eye for beauty’.But eyes and ears are body parts for hearing and seeing,whatever.Only when we develop them for the sense of music or for the sense of beauty,it is through mind.A mind with aesthetic sense!And in social life,in technical areas like medical or others,those unacquainted are described as unaware of these matters.Further in matters of forming unions or organization for collective interests,the term ‘consciousness’ enters.Even in matters of crime,courts use terms like that–criminal was fully conscious of the crime.
So there are four terms are in use-Body,brain,mind consciousness,which are intrinsically related to each other,yet having somewhat individual explanation as well.Out of these Body is the base,elemental and all other units develops from it.If body does not exist,brain,mind and consciousness does not exist,though creations of these can exist.Though one part of body, brain has some special place in body,it is controlling unit of other parts of body.It is said that even sensations of various parts of skin like touch,taste,seeing,listening etc. in the body have their origins in brain.Brain has developing qualities for its itself like other parts of the body.The thinking, memory like processes,which are linked with mind also,are at level of physical process,part of brain activity.Yet if body gets affected as a whole with sickness or in parts like with injury to certain part of the body,including brain itself getting injured,sometimes with ‘Brain hemorrhage’ etc. the whole functioning of the body can come to standstill.
With a developed brain,there develops the abstract sense of beauty,aesthetic taste,intellectual horizons ,the terms ,which include the word ‘Mind’.Mind is not a physical unit,it is an abstract unit,which include the developed functioning of brain.As without body as elemental unit,brain has no existence,so without brain as elemental unit in this context,there can be no ‘mind’.The phenomenon of thinking,memory,contemplation,discernment,consciousness formation etc. are all related to both brain and ‘mind’.It is through brain,mind’s higher functioning is achieved,like ‘ear for music’,or ‘eye for beauty’ etc. is creation of developed mind,through developed brain.Further when Psychologists developed the mind’s three parts as–Unconscious,Sub conscious and conscious,these were also through advanced brain and mind activity.When courts talk of criminal committing crime with ‘full conscious state of mind’,or we talk of ‘collective consciousness’ or workers consciousness,national consciousness or self consciousness etc. are all part of the same process,achieved through combination of brain and mind.
There are lot of contradictions as well in this complex functioning of body-brain,mind-consciousness’.Such as elemental senses of body aspire for eating-drinking lot many items,which are tasteful for the tongue,but harmful for the whole body.Brain is caught in contradiction-it feels the sensation of taste pleasing to body parts,but it is the one which is aware of harmful effects of the ‘tongue tasteful’ items as well.Thus lot of doctor’s advices in matters of avoidance of certain foods, are not followed and the ‘taste’ wins over ‘precautions’,thus leading body to self destruction.It happens with ‘mind-consciousness’ dialectics as well.Certain level of consciousness demands certain specific actions from mind,but ‘the pragmatist’ mind, again ‘ different ‘developed state of mind’,contradicts each other and mind follows ‘pragmatism’,thus damaging the ‘self acquired consciousness’.here contradiction turns into ‘body-mind’ contradiction as well.Certain consciousness could lead to certain actions,which invite trouble from state and could cause lot of physical discomfort in life,so body comforts overtake ‘consciousness’ and force mind to act as per needs of body and not as per ‘developed consciousness’,but people like Socrates could defy ‘body dictates’ and opt for ‘developed consciousness acquired freedom of mind’ and get ready to the extinction of not only body,but mind and consciousness as well, as body is the total unit,from where it all develops.But this self induced extermination of body ensures the long life of ‘developed acquired consciousness’, as Socrates acquired ‘freedom of thought’ lives till today and may continue till the extermination of mankind itself.
So body-brain-mind-consciousness dialectics are very interesting but complex.Few people go for fully developed consciousness, the highest state of ‘human development’, most go for elemental body comforts,but those who have developed mind-consciousness comforts’,for them body comforts are of too low level, and many suicides come not only from body pains,these come from ‘consciousness pains’ as well.Best goal for mankind is ‘balance of body-mind comfort’,which actually is the goal of Marx’s conceived socialist society,but which for now has gone to background.Present neo liberal induced atmosphere is only for ‘body comfort’,that too of very low level,thus stifling for ‘consciousness comfort’ beings throughout the world.Let us see,when mankind gets back to its real path of balanced ‘body-consciousness comfort’, which perhaps is possible only in a socialist society.

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Three symbolic ‘B”s of Punjabi Identity-Baba Nanak, Bulle Shah and Bhagat Singh

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Every community in any country or society has some cultural roots, which are acquired in many centuries and become part of that society’s not only consciousness,but even sub conscious is affected by it.Natural environment, working conditions of society also contribute towards acquiring certain specific characteristics in a community.Over the period, there are certain personalities,who have the creative qualities of expressing these characteristics through words or other creative images like music,painting etc.Punjab as a geographical region has such characteristics that people here through centuries have lived through certain harshness and that have made Punjabis somewhat sturdy people,but these conditions are not permanent and today’s Punjabis are like many other communities, depending upon the profession in which they are.But the lived histories create a cultural tradition also, so Punjabis have also got that tradition. To me, three Punjabi ancestors look to represent the true collective Punjabi spirit, though not all live according to that spirit.For me, three Punjabis seem to represent the true Punjabi spirit and all have their name with ‘B’, though Nanak is with ‘N’,yet he is known more as Baba Nanak,than Nanak or even Guru Nanak.Bulle Shah and lastly Bhagat Singh with modern intellectual outlook make the trio symbol of Punjabi spirit.Of these Bhagat Singh is atheist and Baba Nanak and Bulle Shah are theists.I consider myself to be atheist,yet some of the sayings and writings of both Baba nanak and Bulle Shah touch me a lot.About Bhagat Singh I keep on writing a lot,here I would like to share which words of these two great saints and wanderers touch me.
First thing about Baba Nanak touches me is his journeys of the world on his foot.One Punjabi artist conceived of his picture through painting just a huge healthy leg taking a step.His five Udasis-travels in today’s parlance are fantastic.And wherever he went with two of his disciples-Bala and Mardana-the singer(Rababi), he challenged the false irrational notions,such as at Hardwar, throwing water behind him westwards to challenge those who threw water eastwards,in order the water to reach sun.Baba Nanak said he is sending this water to his farms in Punjab.Or having legs towards a religious site in Kaaba,whereas belief was to keep head on that side and Nanak said show me the side,in which God is not there.Or having food from a worker’s house and refusing the food of the most rich and powerful of the village.Symbolically he showed that milk is squeezed out of poor worker’s bread,which is earned through hard labour,whereas blood is squeezed out of powerful rich’s bread,which is exploited from worker’s hard labour.In today’s class parlance it can be said that riches are made with poor’s blood. Baba Nanak openly and loudly challenges the exploiters and oppressors in his bani.He demands respect for women at a time when even Kabir like radical Bhagat poets were calling names for women.I wish to quote some of poetry which leaves deep impact upon me:
Punjabis are considered quite boastful community,which is true only in few cases.Baba Nanak takes a pun such boastfulness and counters with the words–“Mithat niwin Nanaka,Gun Changiaian Tatt'(Oh Nanak be sweet and humble,qualities and goodness are the crux).Baba Nanak opposed any kind of oppression or aggression on mankind and he spoke out at Babar’s aggression on India in these words-‘Khurasan Khasmana kiya Hindustan Draia…..eite maar payi kulaanen,Tain ki dard naa aaya'(Aggressors terrorized India by their aggression….even so much cruelties did not make you feel anguished)
To expose the cruelties in the name of religious rituals,Baba takes a pun–‘Je Ratt lage kapde jama hoi pleet/jo ratt pivhi mansa. tin kyon nirmaal cheet'(If blood stained clothes make body sinful then those who suck human blood,why they are considered pious. In another context Baba Nanak declares that–‘Hak Paraya Nanka,us suar us gai'(To appropriate others rights should be like pig to one(Muslim) and cow to other(Hindu).He attacks all the feudal lords of ‘kalyug’-kal kate raje kasai(Kings are butchers in kalyug).
Baba Nanak showed great sensitivity towards women,when he says–‘Bhande Jammiye Bhande Nimmiye,Bhande sanganu viahu/Bhandhu hove dosti,Bhandhu chale rahu/Bhande mua Bhande bhaliye ,bhande hove bandhanu/so kiyon manda aakhiye,jitu jammahi rajan/Bhande hi Bhand upje,bhand bajh na koye/Nanak Bhandebahra vedo sacha soye'(Nanak says that woman gives birth,one is married to woman.with woman one has friendship,the path goes with woman.one looks for woman and is bound to woman.why say bad os some who gives birth to kings? Nanak says that woman gives birth to woman and there is nothing without woman.
In medieval age religious discourse, this is most radical expression, almost like Mirabai or other woman poets.Then on Dalits,he says-‘Neechan andar neech jaat,neechan hun ati neech,nanak tinke sang saath..(Nanak is with those,who are considered lowliest of the lowliest in society…)
Again on Babar’s aggression Baba Nanak asserts that the aggressors spread knowledge which they think best and qazis and bahmans(Muslim and Hindu preachers) are behaving like devils and Nanak sings the songs of blood.Baba Nanak predicts that men will rise to oppose the aggression and declares that Nanak is daring to speak truth and it is time to speak truth.
Baba Nanak is believes in dialogue and diversity of thought as he says that ‘jab lagu duniya rahiye Nanak kichhu suniye kichhu kahiye(Till the world survives Nanak one should listen and one should respond).For a thinker and writer his message is-‘Dhanu so kagadu kalam dhanu dhanu bhanda dhanu masu/dhanu lekhari nanaka jini naamu likhia sach'(Hail the paper,pen,the inkpot,the ink/Hail the writer Nanak who wrote the truth).Baba Nanak expects true writers to speak and express truth and not cover it.
Baba Nanak speaks even about the practical things of life as well,like eating habits-‘Baba bahuta khana khusi khawaru,jis khade tan pidiye,man mein chalhi vikar'(Oh Nanak gluttony is joy killer,what joy in that eating ,which causes pain in the body and distortions in the thought?)I don’t remember other couplets,which Navtej Bharti shared me with much more punch for the gluttons.
Baba Nanak indulged in philosophical depths of metaphysical thought,combining the Hindu and Islamic liberal thoughts,but he is equally powerful poet at aesthetic level.More than that he is democrat to the core in opposing all kinds of oppression and injustice.Few Punjabis are having his spirit in themselves,even though they ritually profess his name.Baba Nanak represents the rationality of his time and he falls more in the category of a thinker.He also represents the Gurmat poetry or philosophy,which include nine other Sikh Gurus and few Bhakti poets,whose poetry is included along with six Gurus poetry in ‘Adi Granth’ edited by fifth Sikh Guru Arjun Dev in 1604 A.D.
Some more sayings of Baba Nanak:
‘Gun Vichaire Gyani Hoi/Gun mein Gyan prapat Hoi'(If you focus on qualities,then you are knowledgeable/Knowledge comes through qualities)
‘Jau tau prem khelan ka chao/siru dhari tali gali meri aau/it marg pair dharije/sir dije kane na kije’
(If you are fond of playing love/come to my street with head on your hand/if you step on this path/gift the head without murmur)
Only two cities are referred Baba Nanak-Lahore and Amritsar-in his bani-Lahore Sahru Amritsaru sifti da gharu-Lahore is a city and Amritsar is home of admirers
Beauty of nature–‘Gagan mein thalu ravi chand deepak bane tarika mandal janak moti’
On monsoon–‘Mori runjhun laya/bhaine saawan aaya’
On wisdom-‘vakhtu vichaire su Banda hoi'(The Man is one, who thinks in time)
On conduct–‘Galin asin changian achari buriah/manhu kasudha kaaliya bahri chitwiah'(We are good at talk,bad in conduct/Black in mind,but white from outside)
On wasting time-‘Raine gawai soe ke divasu gawaia khae/Hire jaisa janam hai kaudi badle jae'(Night lost in sleeping and day in eating/precious life lost in pennies)
On Education–‘Vidya vichari tan parupkari'(To contemplate knowledge is to serve the others{humanity})
This is Punjabi University Patiala’s anthem also.
On Egoism-“Haume diragh rog hai daru bhi is mahe'(Egoism is deep sickness,but its treatment lies within it{to shed it})
Quotes from Baba Nanak has been taken from Punjabi University Patiala publication-‘Guru Nanak Bani Prakash’ in two volumes published in 1969 at 500 birth anniversary of Baba Nanak.There had been deep discussion on Gurbani at Najam Hussain Syed, an eminent Punjabi scholar’s house in Lahore in weekly Friday meetings.Roman rendering and English interpretation is mine,which could have errors or difference in opinion.
Bulle Shah is the continuation of Baba Nanak four hundred years later.Bulla does not indulge in philosophy as much, as he dips himself deep in passion.One of his defining feature could be that he is perhaps most passionate Sufi poet,that is why every semi classical singer,even of non Punjabi origin finds Bulla songs too fascinating to sing.Even today’s modern western instrumental combination singers find Bulla too difficult to resist.All young singers in Pakistan sing Bulla.What is Bulla’s passion-it looks to be passion for God or his Sai Shah Inayat,yet it is passion for human love too, as in Meera Bai in Hindi.For medieval poets,symbol of God or undefined power was more easy to express their deepest passion.Moreover when such passion was not found among men or women around them The feudal societies suppress human passions so much that when there is explosion of such passion,it can explode only through symbol of God.For Meera Bai it was Krishna,whose Prem Diwani she was and ‘nobody understood her anguish'(He ri main to prem diwani,mera dard na jaane koye’)It could be Lal Ded in Kashmir,Akka Mahadevi in Kannada,Sappho in Greek.
Bulle Shah is also represents the long tradition of humanist Sufi poetry of Punjabi.Beginning Sheikh Farid(12th century),whose poetry is also part of ‘Adi Granth’,Shah Hussain in 16th century,Sultan Bahu in 17th and Bulle Shah in 17-18th century took Sufi poetry to its absolute heights.Almost all Sufi poetry is sung,so is Gurbani.But Gurbani singing in classical ragas is more of religious performance,whereas Sufi poetry singing,even with religious content has mass appeal and it is sung in classical as well as popular style with lot of experimentation and thus has become immensely popular on both sides of the border of Punjab.
My collection of Bulle Shah, published by Languages Deptt. Punjab Patiala in Gurmukhi script contains 156 Kafian,49 Dohre,one Athwara(Week),one Baramah(12 months), three ‘Siharfis’ and 40 ‘Gandhan’.
All of Bulle Shah’s Kafian are such that you feel like quoting each one of these as its popular renderings by singers have made it part of your sub conscious,but I shall refer to few only here:
‘Uth Jag Ghurare Mar nahin/eh saun tere darkar nahin'(Stop snoring and get up/you can not afford to sleep)-Call for awakening is for human condition awareness.
‘Uth Gaye Gawandhon yaar/Rabba hun ki kariye'(Friends have gone from neighbourhood/O God what to do!)-You can not afford to live without friends
‘Ik Ranjha mainu Lodinda….'(Same need for friend!)
‘Ulte hor zamane aaye..'(These are the reverse times..)
‘Aa mil yaar saar lai meri/meri jaan dukhan ne gheri'(Come o’friend,take care of me/I am afflicted with pains)-Need for human compassion!
‘Bulla ki jaana main kaun?’ (Bulla who knows who am I?)most popular
‘Aao sayio ni ral devo ni vadhai/main var paya Ranjha mahi'(Come congratulate me friends/I have got Ranjha the bridegroom for me!)–Though god is perceived as ranjha,but it is not devoid of human passion
‘Munh aayi baat na rehndi ae..'(You can not hold the thought coming from your mouth..) passion and thought can’t be contained!
‘Meri Bukkal de vich Chor..'(The thief lies in my own self..)
‘Haji lok Makke nun jaande/mera Ranjha mahi makka'(Those performing Haj go to Makka/and my Makka is my Ranjha)-Love and passion is supreme for me!
‘Ranjha Ranjha kardi ni,main ape Ranjha hoi/Saddo ni manu Dhido Ranjha,mainu Heer na aakho koi'(In passion for Ranjha,I myself have become Ranjha/Don’t call me Heer anymore,call me now Dhido Ranjha)-In passion two become one
‘Main kyon kar jawan Kaabe nun/dil loche takhat hazare nun'(Why shall I go to Kaaba/heart seeks Takhat Hazara-place of Ranjha) God without passion means nothing to Bulla
‘Ishq di nawion nawin Bahar..'(Passion keeps on renewing all the time..)
‘Ghunghat chuk ‘O Sajna,hun sharman kahnun rakhian'(Open the veil O beloved,why shyness now?)When you are in love,you are not shy of each other
‘Ki Bedardan sang yaari/rovan akhiyan zaro zari'(What friendship with heartless/Eyes shed tears intermittently)-Love can not bear the indifference of lover!
Bulle Shah is the expression of supreme passion in human beings,call it mystical love or real love among human beings.
Bhagat Singh born in twentieth century with October 1917 Soviet Socialist revolution in his life, is the combination of Baba Nank’s thoughtfulness and Bulle Shah’s passion,combined with socialist humanist thought of Marx/Engles/Lenin.Some of his ideas can be found in two of his articls posted on my page-‘Why I am an Atheist’ and ‘The Untouchable’.He has imbibd the best from tradition of Punjab and combined it with international humanist thought.The best Punjabi personality can emerge out of adopting the spirit of three big ‘B’s of Punjabi tradition.
I must admit here that Baba Nanak’s tradition was carried well through nine Gurus and the tenth Guru gobind Singh also declared that-‘Manas ki Jaat sab eko Pehchanbo'(Consider the whole human race as one). He is the one, who also declared that-‘Jo mujhko parmeshar uchre/so to narakkund mein parihe'(That who calls me God/shall go to hell).He also declared that-‘Agya bhai Akal ki tabhi chalaio Panth/sab Sikhan ko hukum hai Guru Manyo Granth'(Sikh sect has been created with the order of the omnipresent and all Sikhs are ordered to accept Granth as Guru)
With nthe passing of time,neither Baba Nanak’s rebellious spirit or the spirit created by guru Gobind Singh/Guru Granth sahib has survived,it has turned into another ritualistic religion.Guru Granth sahib, a source of knowldge has been turned into statue to be installed like a ‘Murti’ in a temple with all the rituals, rahter than seeking guidance from it for life.The casteism has not been annihilated from Sikhism,Gurdwaras have come out caste wise, many Sikh parents kill their children for marrying outside caste like Khap panchayts in Haryana.
Bulle’s Sufi tradition has also suffered from infirmities.At Kasur, women are not allowed inside Mazar of Bulla to offer flowers and they have to stand out to see their flowers offered by the priests there,though atmosphere outside mazar is very alive still-lots of people dance Jhumar to sing Bulla.
There has been certain boastfulness/arrogance of physical strength/martial race complex etc. in Punjabi community on both sides of the border-these are qualities/rather sicknesses of feudalism,rather than defining feature of Punjabi personality.Punjabi personality has thoughtfulness,wandering spirit and humility of Baba Nanak;passion/dancing for life of Bulla and modern scientific enlightened ideology of Bhagat Singh to shape Punjabi society into socialist society in future.Nothing humane is alien to this Punjabi personality anywhere in the world.
I consider myself Punjabi of this varierty with my own mother tongue Punjabi as base for expressing my feelings and thought and I am proud of this variety of Punjabiyat.

Khan Shaheed Abdul Samad Khan Achakzai, his life and struggle-Courtesy-Kaleem Atal-Quetta

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INTRODUCTION

Khan Shaheed Abdul Samad khan Achakzai was a great national hero not only played a great role for the liberation of the Pashtoons but also collaborated with other outstanding leaders for the liberation of other oppressed peoples of the Subcontinent. He was such an honest, courageous and stead fast leader who not only fought against the Imperialists but also against the dictators and anti democratic rulers of Pakistan. He organized and empulsed the peoples against the tyranny and exploitation of the colonizers. He formulated a sound philosophy and correct strategy for the liberation of his people. These were disliked by the rulers and thinking him to be a great hindrance in the way their nefarious designs. So, they planned to remove him out of their way and so on the night of 2nd of December 1973, they martyred him by throwing two bombs in to his sleeping Room while he was asleep.

INTERNATIONAL AND REGIONAL CIRMSTUNACES

Towards the end of nineteenth century capitalism entered its ultimate stage of imperialism in Europe and British, French, and the like powers occupied Asian and African countries in such a manner that these countries were settles as complete colonies or semi-colonies for exploitation, and thus an extensive colonialist system was established by the global imperialism. The apportion of these enslaved countries was reckoned in the ratio of the might of the plundering countries of the age.

The mightiest imperialist country had posses the biggest share in the plunder. During the late 19th century as the British imperialists were the mightiest of all the rest. The most important slave countries in respect of economic, political and strategic point of view came under the occupation of the British imperialism with great number and amplitude and when the British imperialist exploiters transferred the whole of the subcontinent in to their colony, they latter on occupied the territory of Afghanistan and included it in her occupied territory of Subcontinent and named them as North West and Frontier Province with the capita at Peshawar, which used to be the winter Capital of Afghanistan and British Balochistan with the capital at Quetta.

At the beginning of 2oth century on the one side the European imperialist countries were busy in preparation for war to distribute the booty by force of the sophisticated arms of that time, on the other side the highest revolutionary class, the industrial workers of the European countries were organizing the labor movement and on the third side the people of the slave and semi slave countries taking the first steps for emancipation from the grip of the colonialist exploitation and establishment of self control over their countries.

His struggle and political philosophy

Khan Shaheed Abdul Samad Khan Achakzai was born in the Gulistan tehsil of District Kialla Abdullah of the Colonized Afghanistan in 1907. This part of the land was still resounding with the songs of heroic deeds in defense of defending the motherland, but this struggle of their was lacking the guidance of such political organization which according to the needs of the time could provide the befitting leadership.

In the meantime from 1917 to 1918 the imperils countries of Europe entangled with each other in a ferocious war for the redistribution of the World In this imperialist war of occupation and subjection of the subjected and slave countries all the imperialist countries and their colonies took part and this war was called the First World of 1914-1918.

Most of the labor parties with the organization of the World labor movement. The second International became agents of this imperialist plunderer and fought for them to usurp more colonies. Within the Second International only minority of labor parties under the guidance of Russian revolutionary Labor party of Bolshevik clearly declared that the imperialist were fighting this war only for the redistribution of other countries specially the subjected ones1. It is therefore, the duty of true revolutionary and parties complying with the principles of the international proletariat to struggle against the imperialists within their own nations to win freedom for themselves on the one side and finishing the imperialist, capitalists of their own countries. Practically demonstrate the international brotherhood of the workers of the subjected colonized countries. In this way the second international had do be divided and the parties and the elements that become tools in the hands of the imperialists of their countries became chauvinists, called socialists nominally but really they were chauvinists and the parties and the revolutionaries who clearly called this war an imperialist war and supported the land and subjected nations and workers of their countries against the imperialists were those who not only verbally but practically adhered to the principled of proletariat internationalist. These real internationalists practically cleared the true meaning of internationalists in politics.2

These true internationalists in the light of this particular meaning of the principles of internationalism established the third international after October, 1917 revolution.

Khan Shaheed was only ten years old when in the Czarist Russia the vanguard of the workers of Bolshevik Party that complied with the principles of Internationalism in true meaning of the word, the Government of the toiling people by over throwing the exploiting classes in October, 1917 and emancipating all the slave and subjected nations of Russia on the principles of self determinations and equality of the nation, established their own republics where the peoples of these free republics of their own consent united the Soviet republics and formed the Union of Soviet Socialist Republic.3 In this manner a practical example of the political ideals for national and social freedom was set up.

In the Sub continent and in occupied Afghanistan majority of the workers and exploited classes of the people joined the struggle for democratic values and emancipation from imperialist oppression as the result of these World events and historical and social demands. During this time all parties and toiling masses united primarily in the Afghania Reformist Movement afterward in the Khudai Khidmatgar Movement under the leader ship of Bacha Khan throughout the occupied North eastern Afghanistan or in NWFP and Kaka sanober Hussain Momend, Moulana Abdur Raheem Ppalzai, Khushal Kaka Ji and other gave momentum to the movement.4

In the British Balochistan or South Pashtoonkhawa in 1918 at the age of eleven years Khan-I-Shaheed abdul samad Khan Achakzai headed a procession of School boys at Gulistan in confirmations with the Khilfat Movement demonstrating against the British Rule in the region.5

In 1930 Khan-I-Shaheed was arrested immediately after his decision to found democratic political party for freedom during his struggle.6 After his release in 1931, he went to Bombay where he met Mahatma Gandhi who was on his way to London to attend the round table conference. On this occasion Khan Shaheed had the opportunity to meet many other known political figures including Bacha Khan and as a result of this visit they united the freedom movement of oppressed classes in particular of Pashtoon of Peshawar and Quetta region with the cooperation of other Pashtoon leaders playing a great role in the organization of the Khudai Khidmat gar of Surkpoosh Movement (red Shirt) which was the association of the patriotic masses specially the Pashtoon workers and farmers.

Here Khan-I-Shaheed and his Pashtoon and Baloch companions struggled very hared and untiringly against the British imperialist and the tribal chiefs attached to them. During the struggle he suffered many years behind the bars. Exile and detentions. He established a platform to complete the aims and objects of his revolutionary struggle to Pashton and Baloch masses and people of the Subcontinent and afterwards issued the newspapers ISTIQLAL from Quetta in 1938 Thus during the thirties in spite of confinements, detention, exile and all sorts of perils in the imperialists, colonialists and retrogressive conditions. Khan Shaheed and his courageous friends namely Ayub Khan achakzai, Moulan Obedullah of Bostan District Pishin, Molovi Ghulam Haider Mehterzai of Kan Mehterzai, Aslam Achakzai and many more conducted their political struggle, organized conferences and arranged processions wrote and publish articles and founded the political Party Anjuman-I- Watan in 193 for the freedom of Mother land and for the democratic values where each and every person must have equal opportunity and rights. Khan Shaheed was elected the President of the Party. In Kalat State or Balochistan State Gul Khan Naseer and other freedom loving Baloch leaders formed Kalat National Party. It was the culmination of such enthusiastic endeavours that the freedom movement of Pashtoon and Baloch people gained the leadership of revolutionary democratic political movements for the emancipation of Pashtoon and Baloch peoples, cooperation of Brotherhood was established on the basis of equality.10

In 1939 Khan-I-shaheed and Bacha khan went on political tour to the British Balochistan together and motivated the pashtoons to make themselves ready for the up coming challenges as the imperialist countryside with their fresh ratio of power once more planned the Second World war 1939-45 for the redistribution of the World. Although the real aim of the imperialist countries was rooting out the revolutionary Republic of Soviet Socialist Republic and all the National movements for emancipation.11 There emerged two groups against each other, one led by Germany and the other by British. The 2nd World war had direct effect on the political scenario of whole the world in general and on Sub-continent in particular. The Indian National Congress resigned from the ministries in order to put pressure on British and started quiet India movement against the British in 1942.12 On the guidance of Khan-I-Shaheed, Anjuman-I-Watan commenced a movement on the same pattern against the British. Khan Shaheed played a bold and courageous role in it.13

In the prevailing World events the British compiled to leave Pashtoonkhawa, Balochistan and the Subcontinent as the consequences of the struggle by the Anjuman-I-Watan, Khudai khidmat Gar from Pashtoonkhawa, Kalat National Party form Balochistan, and many more from other parts of the region. But Khan-I-Shaheed, Bacha Khan and other freedom loving persons who persisted on the sole aim of putting the British to flight, could not stop the success of the British in their intrigues of those days: and the departing British ruler transferred the powers to their patronized landlords, agents capitalists classes and the civil and military bureaucracy who never let the democracy to be flourished in the Country and they carried on the same policies even went many steps ahead from the British.

It was hoped that with the creation of Pakistan the Pashton , Baloch, Sindhi, Saraiki, Punjabi and Bengali peoples then emancipated from the British subjection, would be the masters of their supreme authority and powers on the basis of equality of the nationalities and on this principle would equally share the political authority but these still are the dreams of the people of the country. Within such conditions Khan-I-Shaheed carried on the struggle for the National and democratic rights for the people of Pakistan and with the coming of August, 1947, the series of his arrests and detentions began once more and then he was put behind the bars on orders by the representative of Fresh colonialist rulers, the English agent to the Governor General and he remained in jail till 1954. After his release in 1954 he formed a political party with the name of Worrier Pashtoon (Pashtoon Brother). He was elected the conveyor of the Party.

Afterward again the chain of arrests and detentions began and hardly was set free by Lahore High Court in 1956. Then in such state of affairs wror Pashtoon joined hands with patriotic peoples of all the nationalities and laid the foundation of National Awami Party( NAP) in 1957. The NAP was basically formed against the One Unit scheme, which was imposed in 1955 abrogating the provinces of Pakistan in a single one18. NAP adopted a free, neutral political policy on the basis of the principle of equality of all nationalities, the establishment of their political power and participation in the central set up on the basis of real equality, and total emancipation from world imperialism. Thus Khan-I-Shaheed, Bacha khan, Kak Sanobar Hussain Momand and other numerous Pashtoon leaders were forerunners of the real democratic political party that was anti-imperialist, anti-feudal, and anti-conservatism and truly a party for the establishment of power of the toiling peoples of Pakistan.

The first target of Ayub Khan’s Martial law Khan Shaheed who was arrested on the second day of martial law and then was confined to fourteen years rigorous imprisonment by special military court on totally false allegations. Along with him the workers and the leaders of NAP were made targets of reprisal of every kind. The state was totally converted into a military base of the American imperialism and was pledged to the international imperialism.

Released in 1968 after the full term of punishment, when Khan-I-Shaheed came to Quetta, the enthusiastic procession of the people to welcome him proved to be the first spark of the people’s fury to burn the Ayub despotism and reduce it to ashes. Khan–I-Shaheed was again arrested along with his some of companions and was tried by a tribunal, but furry of the people specially of the Pashtoon masses had become a storm against Ayub tyranny, even though in the endeavors to over come the rage of this storm, the helpless students in the Zarif Shaheed Hostel Science College Quetta, were indiscriminately fired at and as result Zarif Khan was murdered. But they could not stop this storm and it spread through out the country and at last drifted the Ayub dictatorship despotism.

In 1970 Yahaya Khan understanding the demand of time disbanded one unit, but. It is obvious that the abode of the Pashtoons, majority chief commissioner Province historically has remained a separate national political unit and the treaty of Gandamak 1879 and other exploits imposed treaties brought this region under the direct control of British and was named as British Balochistan although it was absolutely Pashtoon populated area, the British forcibly occupied this region from Afghanistan on the condition that Amir of Afghanistan should received the surplus revenues after payment of the expanses of administration.23. The British colonialists gave the wrong name of British Balochistan to the occupied Afghanistan, for the unsuccessful attempt to conceal the historical fact of the occupation of the land of pashtoons by the British imperialists and gradually erase this fact from the memories of the world but it is highly regretted that even though martial Law Government of General Yehya Khan announced the abrogation of One Unit and that the former provinces were to be revived, yet the Chief Commissioner’s Province of Pashtoon ( Since 1st November 1887) was not only not revived but also the Balochistan States Union was joined with it and it was once again named after the name of others without the determination of political, historical and constitutional inter-relations of Pashtoon and Brohi –Baloch. It is to be further pointed out that Chief Commissioner of the British Balochistan had its own elected institution of Shahi Jirga, having 46 members at the time of establishment of Pakistan who voted in favor of Pakistan on 29th June 1947 as instructed by 3rd June plan of 1947. It is worth nothing that of 46 sitting members of the Shahi Jirga (consisting of all the Chief, Sardars and elders of the tribes) 38 were Pashtoons and the remaining Eight were Brohi- Baloch. Moreover out of seven members of the Quetta Municipality three were Pashtoons and remaining were the new comers to Quetta.

In fact the Baloch have always opposed the inclusion of British Balochistan or the Pashtoon populated area into Balochistan. When the Shahi Jirga of British Balochistan was voting to decide weather to be the part of Pakistan or India in June 1947. The Baloch members in the Shahi Jirga except Mir Jafar Khan Jamaili wanted to go with Balochistan states union and to remain in British Balochistan26. When Federal Government of Pakistan wanted to merge the Balochistan States Union with the Chief Commissioner Province of Pashtoons, So, it was opposed by Baloch in 1954 and in February 1954 during the Sibi week when the Government officers persuaded some Baloch sardars to give their consent to the merger of Chief Commissioner Province of Pashtoon districts with Balochistan States union. It was considered by the Baloch as a vicious stratege. A few Baloch Sardars signed a memorandum drawn up by the Government functionaries, informing the agent to the Governor General of the approval of the merger of Chief Commissioner Province or Pakistani Balochistan (as the Baloch leaders used to call it) with Balochistan states Union. This arrangement was severely criticized by the Baloch who in a memorandum on 16th February, 1954 addressed to members of the constituent Assembly of Pakistan on behalf of “the well wishers of Pakistan, the Baloch and Balochistan, the memorandum maintains that the Sardars, who signed the document without knowing its full implications, accepted their mistakes when apprised by the real situation, and repented in writing. The document opposed the inclusion of the Chief Commissioner Province of Pashtoons populated in to Balochistan States union and proposed that in view of the racial affinities, they might be merged in North West Frontier Province ( NWFP ) or retained as a separate Province. In this regard Eighteen (18) Baloch Sardars and leaders of opinions sent Telegrams to the Pakistani authorities voicing their opposition to the proposed inclusion of “Pakistani Balochistan” which used to be British Balochistan before partition of 1947, in to the Balochistan States Union. They termed such an action by Pakistani Government illegal and unconstitutional28.

The Chief Commissioner Province of British Balochistan or Pashtoon populated areas never formed part of Balochistan or the Baloch confederacy, these were under the administrative control of Afghanistan and the British took forcibly these areas from Afghanistan after the Second Anglo-Afghan war 1878-80 and gave it the status of a Chief Commissioner Province naming it as British Balochistan, actually it should have been as British Afghanistan or other wise and after the creation of Pakistan, the Chief Commissioner Province fell in to Pakistan and functioned separately till the imposition of One Unit scheme in Pakistan in 1955.

The question of the National and historical basis for the creation of the provinces and the formation of the United Pashtoon Province comprising the Chief Commissioner Province and NWFP was first raised by Abdul Samad Khan Achakzai . His Organization Wror Pashtoon (Pashtoons Brothers) formed in 1954, was clearly aimed at creating a Pashtoon Province. In a statement submitted before the Justice Sahbir Ahmed of Lahore High Court on 26th October, 1956, He said Wror Pashtoon wished to create an autonomous unit within Pakistan comprising all Pashtoon populate areas. He told the Court “Let me mention that the creation of Pashtoonistan, comprising contiguous Pashtoon areas separated by the British under various nomenclatures, is my life mission. I can not give it up to avoide punishment or torture on my body29.

Abdul Samad Khan merged his Party in to National Awami Party, which came in to being in 1955, to resist against the one unit and to restore the former provinces and Democracy in the Country. Abdul Samad Khan Achakzai and his party men struggled to obtain the demands of NAP, especially to get a united Province of the Pashtoon comprising contiguous Pashtoon areas. After a long and tiresome struggle by Khan Sahaeed and other leaders of the NAP, General Yahaya Khan was compelled to shun the One Unit and to restore the former provinces. But it was very unfortunate moment for Khan Shaheed as within these conditions a few leaders of the NAP receded from the basic principles of uniting the divided Pashtoon land of NWFP and of Chief Commissioner Province. It was done even though the Khan Kalat, Mir Ahmad yar Khan wrote to the Military Government of General Yahya Khan in his letter of 27th January 1970 in the capacity of the President of the council of Ruler of the Balochistan States Union opposing any move to include the Pashtoon areas of Chief Commissioner Province in to Balochistan. Balochistan, the Khan said, was not only State but also an institution of Baloch culture and ideology. He stated that the members of Council of Rulers and the people of Kalat , Makran , Lassbilla and Kharan have the full determination to maintain the Balochistan States Union and their Balochi leased areas as a separate administrative unit and do not want to be forced to be the part of the rest of the Quetta division with which they don’t desired to be merged. He suggested that the Balochistan States Union including the Balochi leased areas should form a separate Province of Balochistan. Being disappointed and disillusioned, Samad Khan Achakzai standing firmly committed on the basic principles of the NAP, the Pahtoonkhawa was added to the original name of the Party and in this manner National Awami Party was maintained in the under the leadership of Samad Khan Achakzai. So, the Province of Balochistan was formed against wishes of Pashtoon and Baloch as neither the Baloch leaders including Khan of Kalat, Mir Ahmad Yar Khan was willing to live under a single administrative unit with Chief Commissioner Province of Pashtoons nor the Pashtoons masses including Abdul Samad Khan Achakzai desired to. Pashtoons lost not only their Province but also their identification. Samad Khan Achakzai with other Pashtoons leaders including Pashtoon masses were expecting that with the restoration of former provinces, they would be able to either a united Pashtoon Province or at least their own Province by upgrading the Chief Commissioner Province to a full fledge Province with their own national name of Pahtoonkhawa or Pashtoonistan. Since then Pashtoonkhawa National Awami Party demanded to restore the former Pashtoon Province and demand of the same is still alive and has taken stronger position as recently Pashtoonkhawa Mili Awami Party’s Chairman Mehmood Khan Achakzai and Pashtoon Ulus Qami Jirga’s convener Senator Nawab Mohammad Ayaz Khan Jogizai presented a written document to the Parlimantory Committee formed and Chaired by Ch. Shujat Hussain, the then the Prime Minister of Pakistan to look and see the problems of smaller provinces of Pakistan particularly of Balochistan. Along with other demands both of the leaders in the first step asked for the restoration of former Pashtoon Chief Commissioner Province and later on to be united the same with NWFP, naming it Pashtoonkhawa, Pashtoonistan or Afghaina32.

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KHAN-I-SHAHEED was elected member of the Balochistan Provincial Assembly in the General Elections of 1970. He continued his struggle to further strengthen the movement for the unity of Pashtoons and setting up the national and social sovereignty of the local people but early in the morning on the 2nd December 1973, when KHAN-I-SHAHEED was sleeping in his room on JAMALUDDIN AFGHANI road Quetta. The agents of colonialist rulers dropped two hand bombs on him and he become a martyr, on third of December, 1973. The great champion of the freedom was buried in the graveyard of his native village Gulistan by about sixty thousand people were present in this occasion.

Significance of ‘Monthly Review’

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‘Monthly Review’ is the world’s most respected radical left magazine.Started in 1949 by Paul M Sweezy and Leo Huberman from America, it continues uninterrupted even after the passing away of its founders-Leo Huberman,Paul Sweezi and Harry Magdoff, who had faced lot of hostility from US establishment towards the journal.In India its cheaper edition is coming out as ‘Analytical Monthly Review’ from Kharagpur.From Bangladesh its Bengali edition is coming.Selective writings in Hindi are also coming.Its Urdu and Sindhi/Punjabi editions should come from Pakistan.It is a must for any kind of leftist group or party.Its Greek edition is also coming.
Leo Huberman ,known for his classic-‘Man’s Worldly Goods’ remained ‘Monthly Review’s founder editor,along with Paul M Sweezy from 1949 to 1968,perhaps till his passing away.Harry Magdoff joined Sweezy from 1969 and he also remained its editor till his passing away in 2006.Paul M Sweezy, however has the longest stint as editor or MR, from 1949 to 2004,till his passing away at 90+.It could also be a record of the sort,editing a highly serious ideological journal in language and style,easily comprehensible, for 55 years.Paul M Sweezy also face the trial in US courts for editing this journal and won after prolonged proceedings, a historic judgment won for freedom of expression in US.World’s best minds,even non leftists respect MR so much that Albert Einstein,the world renowned noble prize winner Scientist contribute his classic piece-‘Why Socialism’ for the first issue of the journal,which is now repeated every year in its anniversary issue. Ellen Meikens Wood also remained one MR editor between 1997-2000 and Robert W.McChesney from 2000 to 2004.Present editor of MR is john Bellamy Fostor, who is known for his books on ecology,published from MR press.Its Associate Editor is Michael D. Yates, part of facebook as well,Susie Day is Assistant editor of MR.Youshie Furuhashi is MRzine editor.My one piece on Bhagat Singh is available at MRzine, written at 75th martyrdom anniversary of BS in 2006Perhaps Mao Ze Dong,Che Guvera,Castro,Chavez all have been aware of MR,not sure whether Stalin also knew about the journal or not.Istva Meszaros,Samir Amin like theoreticians books have been published by Monthly Review Press,which has standing of its own throughout the world,apart from Paul M Sweezy’s all major books,Harry Magdoff’s books,some jointly with Sweezy.
Monthly Review has its own website also and has a page on facebook also. Website address of journal is- htpp://www.mrzine.org
A must visit site for any person involved in the process of social change in progressive direction

Remembering Martyrs of Delhi Bomb Case-1912

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It was on 23rd December 1912,when capital of India,which was shifted from Calcutta to Delhi in 1911,by British colonial rulers,Governor General of India Lord Harding went on elephant through Delhi bazars to exhibit British power in newly established capital.Under the guidance of Ras Behari Bose,the great revolutionary nationalist, young revolutionaries threw bomb on Lord Harding near Chandni chowk.Though Harding escaped with injuries,four brave young men of India-Master Amir Chand, Awadh Behari,Bhai Balmukund and Basant Kumar Biswal were arrested and sentenced to death.Ras Behari Bose escaped police net.Master Amir Chand,Avadh Behari and Bhai Balmukund were executed on 8th May 1915 in Delhi jail,which has now become Maulana Azad medical College on Bahadursha Zafar road in Delhi.Its front gate faces Khooni Darwaza and Ferozeshah Kotla grounds.In Khooni Darwaza two sons of Bahadur Shah Zafar in 1857 war of independence were massacred and their heads were sent to Emperor Zafar in Lal Qila on a plate.Ferozeshah Kotla ground was the location of historic meeting organized by Bhagat Singh and Comrades on 8&9th September 1928, where socialist programme for revolution was first evolved at the initiative of Bhagat Singh.
A small memorial,with bad accessibility is built inside medical college now,few people reach there to pay tributes.Incidentally Bhagat Singh and B K Dutt were kept here in Delhi jail cell, after they threw bombs in Central Assembly(Parliament) on 8th April,1929.Basant Kumar Biswal was executed in Ambala central jail on 9th May 1915.Biswal was 23 year old young from Benagal.The day Bhai Balmukund was executed,same day his wife Ram Ratti expired,who was almost fastin with his husband.Bhai Balmukuund was from the family tree of Bhai Matidas,who was martyred along with ninth Sikh Guru Teg Bahadur in Delhi by Aurangzeb.
Ras Behari Bose again guided Ghadar party movement from Lahore in 1914-15,again escaped in nick of time,reaching Japan,where he finally joined Netaji Subhash Bose’s Azad Hind Fauj.
Bhagat Singh wrote sketches of these four brave martyrs in Punjabi journal ‘Kirti’ in September 1928 and paid rich tributes to them.I remember them with great respect.Photos of four revolutionaries are available on my facebookwall in album on Indian revolutionaries.Jail memorial and Khooni Darwaza photos also might be on my wall.

Rememebering victory of humanity over Fascism-8th May,1945

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Though 7th May,Tagore birthday attracts attention of people like us more,but CPI function today in Delhi,which I could not attend,made me think over the most horrible war ever fought on this earth-Second World War-September 1939 to 1945.It all started with the trampling of German Parliament by Hitler and then annexing countries by force. Till two decades ago, before the fall of Soviet Union,whole Europe and other democrats world over kept the memories of this most inhumane war of the history fresh, through literature,music,paintings,films,plays; every form of art.Some of the greatest films ever made are related to this war,so are the some of other literary and artistic creations.But with the fall of Soviet Union,Iraq-US war and rise of elder and younger Bush era in world politics,people started forgetting the great lessons of world war-II and neo fascism in the world started growing, which is not getting checked.In such circumstances it is must to remember that had Hitler-Mussolini led fascism not got defeated by the greatest ever sacrifices made in human history by Soviet union, the world situation would have been entirely different.No one knows,when Asian and African colonized countries would have got their freedom and under what circumstances?
Sixty million or six crore innocent people of the world paid with their life to defeat the biggest criminals of human history-Hitler and Mussolini, out of which almost half were Soviet people.20 million soldiers and 40 million civilians sacrificed their lives in this war.We know less about Chinese in our region who also lost its citizens at the hands of Japanese warlords, next only to Russians.Had their been no Joseph Stalin with his iron will to challenge Hitlerian fascism, the defeat of German-Italy-Japanese fascism was almost impossible.The war ended with the killing of Mussolini by Partisans i n April 1945 and by suicide of Hitler same month.German forces surrendered on 8th May 1945,so allies declared it a victory day.Though Japanese aggression continued and Americans bombed Hiroshima and Nagasaki on 6th and 9th August 1945,killing more innocent people and indicating to future American brutal face,ultimately Japan also surrendered on 15th August 1945,thus bringing an end to six year most bloodiest war in human history.Ironically victors suffered with 85% causalities in war with aggressors just getting away with 15%.Incidentally Chinese not paid much attention faced massacres at Japanese hands next only to Russians.And nearly ten million or one crore people killed just for not being belonging to pure Aryan race by Hitler fascists in gas chambers and named as The Holocaust.
We must bow our head with deepest respect to the memory of these sixty million people, ten million or one crore of which lost their lives in Hitler’s The Holocaust–killing human beings in gas chambers, since they were not from pure Aryan race.The memories of this war must remain fresh in the minds of humanity,if humanity has to save itself from the rise of another Hitler,Mussolini or Tojo, mini form of whom have already been seen by humanity in the form of Bush’s and Blairs and in Zionist Israel,whosoever is there in power.
Written on Friday · Comments
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Naveed Awan
Naveed Awan
Crimes of Capitalism are not less than nazism & fascism.
In fact all the problems faced by world of today are created by the capitalist beasts.
Nazi Germany & Fascist Italy created confilict within Europe that helped the indepence of the larger parts of the world including India & made an end of the colonial era.
A review of British Cruelties & … See morebrutalities in India diminishes all the crimes of Hitler & Mussolini.
Both wars were between beasts to suck the blood of humanity & the capitalists beasts won it.
Still humamity is facing humility & it’ll remain until a single person in the world lacks food, shelter, education, health facilities & clean environment.
Claiming leadership is easy but delivering is a real trial.
Yesterday at 22:36 ·
Sajith Attepuram
Sajith Attepuram
Hi Amrit, could you tell me how many workers or poor peasants from a country like India is using facebook? I clearly know the unfortunate truth that they are not or cannot get in here.

This site by itself a capitalistic concept, Mark Zuckerberg the founder C.E.O made 4 billion of this from us including you and me.

The coke, pepsi, K.F.C, Apple… See more, Microsoft, H.P., hope even if you are using wipro computer with linux operating system you might be linked towards the greedy capitalist dogs in some way my friend.

I know this is not relevant to the argument we had but this is very relevant in explaining you the tolerance that you have developed over capitalism. I wonder why don’t you have that tolerance towards my modest views.

These arguments may help us to identify the point of views and it is very important to be diplomatic to get the honest views from some one.

There are lots of literatures my friend, if some are pro-Stalinist some may be anti-Stalinist. I can quote some from both but certainly not everything. Of course history and politics is subjected to knowledge gaps and subjective interpretations.

Nikita Khrushchev, Trotsky and even Lenin had their criticism about Stalin . . . You can read it.

From the ruling troika — Stalin, Kamenev, Zinoviev — after Lenins Death, how did the extreme authority evolved under Stalin?

Why the national decisions and rules were framed by Stalin instead of a party commitee or polit bureau?

Why communism in Soviet Union reduced from the dictatorship of workers to the dictatorship of a single person?

If Stalin was against facism and Nazism then why Stalin decided to enter into a non-aggression pact with Nazi Germany?

U.S., and European countries intentionally let Hitler to his way as they thought Hitler was against communist. As for them till then socialism and collective ownership & trade union and workers domination was the greatest scare and then they cannot market their surplus if every country is going to close and plan their economy.

Selfish intrests from every aspects fuelled Hitler, Nazis and Fasicm.

Capitalists had their part in fact a biggest part in supplying defence arsenals to Germany even after they know about his policies are against humanity.

. . . . but these atrocities does not make Stalin to get denounced of his own atrocities and inhumanity.

Socialism can be followed and practised in lot of different ways . . . . Stalinism, Maoism or (Khmer Rouge) polpotism is not the way as it completely isolated many middle class population and world countries from endorsing socialism. That was a mockery of Marxism.

Socialism can be established and sustained through democracy ( Kerala,. West Bengal – India. Especially Kerala became the first developed state in the country with high life expectancy, literacy, primary health care, labour rights etc.)
and it is the only way to establish a global success of socialism. Now my friend you may blame the historians, the mediaand the capitalists but socialism is considered as a failure because of Stalin, Mao, Breshnev etc.

We must correct ourselves to avoid corrected by others. Stalinism and Maoism should critiqued and corrected for the greater concept of socialism to sustain throughout the world.
9 hours ago ·